Monday, 31 December 2012


Address to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army National Defense University

Friday, 28 December 2012

It is a great honour to address the Chinese National Defense University. 

I am aware of the deep historical connection between this university and the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA).  As a student of Chinese history, I am also aware of the extraordinary history of the PLA since 1927.  In particular the military feats of the Red Army during the Long March and later the Eighth Route Army during the Japanese occupation.

My father also was a professional soldier who fought in the Pacific War against Japan.  As a child, he told me many stories from the war.  These were terrible times in China's history, in Asia's history and in Australia’s history.

China has changed remarkably since I began studying Chinese at the Australian National University in 1976.  Chairman Mao was still alive.  The Cultural Revolution had not concluded.  And our Chinese language text books also taught us to study Dazhai, to study Daqing and to study Lei Feng and Dong Cunrui.

Since then I have lived in China, worked in China and visited here about 100 times over the years.  As a scholar, a diplomat, a businessman, a Secretary-General of a provincial government, a Member of Parliament, as a Foreign Minister and as Prime Minister.  I have personally seen the changes unfold in this country.  I have also seen these changes from these many different perspectives.  And my conclusion is that these changes have been overwhelmingly good both for China and the world.

China has now become a middle income country with rising living standards and hundreds of millions lifted out of poverty.  China has just brought about a successful leadership transition.  And increasingly China is regarded as a great power both in the region and the world.  This has all happened over the last 35 years. 

It has been made possible because of strategic decisions taken by Deng Xiaoping.  Also because of a peaceful, stable and generally prosperous regional and global environment.  Our core challenge is to do what is necessary to preserve this international environment for the future.

The purpose of my address today is twofold.  First to discuss the future of the regional and global order as seen from different capitals: from Beijing, from Washington and from the other capitals of Asia.  Second, based on these different perspectives, can we build a new strategic roadmap for China US relations under President Obama and President-elect Xi Jinping?

The View from Beijing

The world and the region as seen from China is often very different from that which is seen from other countries.  This is not just because of different interests.  This is not just because of different values.  It is also because of different historical experiences and perspectives.

The beginning of wisdom is to understand the different worldviews of others.  And as Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore recently said in his address to the Central Party School, the world now carefully scrutinizes China’s every action as its foreign and domestic policies invariably affect other countries in the region and the world.  For the rest of the world, this is not just of theoretical interest.  It is of real, practical interest. 

This is because China in the next decade is likely to become the world’s largest economy.  It is because China is now pursuing a more assertive bilateral and multilateral foreign policy.  And because China's military modernization (conventional, nuclear and cyber-space) is relatively rapid.  So, given the rapid change in Chinese capabilities over the last several decades, the region and the world have a legitimate interest in China's worldview.

I am often asked about this around the world.  The ten points I make here today are the same as the ones I make in conferences around the world.

First, I believe China's worldview is shaped by the continuing central role of the Party in a political system which explicitly rejects the western democratic model.

Second, within that system, the PLA answers to the Party, not the government or the state.

Third, the fundamental responsibility of the Party and the army is to maintain the territorial integrity of the country.  This means a strong approach to separatist movements in Tibet, Xinjiang and Taiwan.  It also means asserting China's territorial claims along its disputed borders.

Fourth, the core task for the Party and the government for the decade ahead is to transform China's economic growth model.  This new model is outlined in the last Five Year Plan and the 18th Party Congress Work Report.  China recognizes that its economic success so far has depended on the internationalization of its own economy and access to global markets.  But for this next economic transformation to occur, China still needs a stable strategic environment.

Fifth, China also continues to need secure long term access to long term supplies of energy and raw materials.

Sixth, despite these clear economic objectives, and despite China's desire for a stable strategic environment to serve those objectives, China in fact has a difficult relationship with many of its neighbours.  This is seen in North East, South East and South Asia.  China also sees this as part of a pattern of US alliances and strategic partnerships both in Asia and beyond.

Seventh, China sees US actions as part of a de facto policy of containment.  China believes the intention of this policy is to frustrate China's peaceful rise.  China does not accept the "China threat" thesis.  China emphasizes the historical record that even when China has been powerful in the past, it has no history of invading other countries.  Instead, China argues that it wants to build a harmonious world based on the principle of mutual advantage.

Eighth, China's worldview is also driven by its historical experience.  Including its hundred years of foreign humiliation.  And its natural desire to resume its proper role as a great power, as in the past.

Ninth, China resents the fact that the current global order was created by the Anglo Saxon victors after the last World War.  China does not accept multilateral criticism on human rights and climate change.  China does not accept criticism of its relationship with states like North Korea, Syria and Sudan.  China does not believe this criticism is fair because of its longstanding policy of mutual non-interference in one another’s internal affairs.  China argues that the principles of mutual non-interference and national sovereignty are core parts of the UN Charter.  China argues its voting pattern in the UN Security Council is driven by these longstanding principles.

Finally, despite these difficulties with the UN system, China is under pressure to contribute more to the UN as a "responsible global stakeholder."  China argues that it is still a developing country.  Nonetheless, China is now doing more in the world in areas such as peacekeeping and in development of what it calls south-south cooperation.

It is, of course, impossible for a foreigner to attempt to describe the region and the world as seen from Beijing.  And this list is undoubtedly flawed and incomplete.  But I believe it gives some sense of China's view of the opportunities and obstacles it sees today in the current regional and global order.

US Perspectives on China's Rise

You will not be surprised to learn that the world as seen from Washington is a little different.  The United States is also profoundly shaped by its historical experience.  

America sees itself as the decisive power that determined the outcome of two World Wars in the last century.  The US sees itself as having paid a great price for this in "blood and treasure."  The US then built much of the post war order that has preserved the global peace.  And this strategic stability has underpinned the age of post-war economic prosperity.  The US then saw the collapse of the Soviet Union after a half century of Cold War.  For the last twenty years the US has seen itself, and been seen by the world, as the world’s only remaining superpower.  It may seem strange here in Beijing, but the US sees its global leadership role as both a privilege and a burden.

The US has been profoundly affected by the events of September 11.  The war against terrorism has dominated much of US domestic and foreign policy over the last decade.  The wars in both Afghanistan and Iraq have had a deep impact on America’s perception of its future global role.

American economic self-confidence was badly affected by the Global Financial Crisis.  Five years later, the United States is still recovering from this crisis.  Many now debate whether the financial and economic model that created the crisis is appropriate for the future.  But despite this there is still an overwhelming sense of American economic self-confidence; that economic renewal and recovery will occur.  There is little sense in the United States that its days as either economic or military superpower are coming to an end.

This is the broad framework in which the United States sees the rise of China.  The United States is very conscious of China’s strengths.  It is also very much aware of China’s weaknesses.  The United States deeply respects China’s formidable economic achievements over the last third of a century.  It respects the formidable work ethic of the Chinese people.  It respects China’s strategy in laying out basic economic infrastructure across the entire country.  It also respects the pace of China’s military modernisation.

Like China, however, the US questions the sustainability of China’s current economic growth model.  It questions the environmental impact of this model.  It also challenges China’s adherence to intellectual property rights and whether China is always playing by the international trade rules.

The United States, together with the rest of the West, also believes democracy is a universal value.  In the case of the United States, this is underlined by what is called “American exceptionalism”.  This is well described in Henry Kissinger’s latest book “On China”.  American exceptionalism is their belief they have a moral responsibility to propagate democratic ideas into the world.  For this reason, democracy and human rights will continue to be areas of disagreement with China.

In Asia, the US believes that China is now competing for traditional US strategic dominance.  The US is aware that China is the major trading partner of most of the economies of Asia.  America is also aware that China has obviously extended its scope of political, cultural and economic diplomacy across Asia, Africa and Latin America.  America has also looked with concern at the level of regional tensions arising from border disputes, both in the East China Sea and the South China Sea. 

In my view, by far and above, America’s greatest regional concern is North Korea’s nuclear weapons program.  No one should underestimate the political and strategic significance of North Korea’s most recent long-range ballistic missile test.  This has focussed the minds of the entire region, most particularly Washington, Tokyo and Seoul but also more widely in the region, including in Australia.  The US will continue to ask China to do more to restrain North Korea’s nuclear weapons program because this program represents a fundamental challenge to long-standing regional stability.

The Obama administration has sought to redefine its strategic engagement in Asia in five different ways

  •  First, the so-called “rebalance” of its military assets to Asia.
  • Second, the American decision to join the East Asia Summit.
  • Third, America’s support for the extension of the trans-Pacific partnership to include Japan and possibly China.
  • Fourth, under Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, engaging in active bilateral diplomacy in all the capitals of Asia.
  • Fifth, the continuation of the Bush Administration’s strategic engagement with India.
The goal of the Obama Administration is to demonstrate to the entire region that America intends to remain an Asia-Pacific power in the 21st century.

 America recognises that the centre of global economic gravity has moved to Asia.  America also recognises that the centre of global strategic gravity will follow.  As the world’s remaining superpower, the US sees itself as responding naturally to these global shifts, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Europe to Asia.  The US also sees itself as having provided much of the underpinning strategic stability in both maritime and mainland Asia in the past.  This in turn is seen as fundamental to Asia’s great economic success story in recent decades.  The US also believes that its treaty relationships with Japan and Korea have prevented both from becoming nuclear weapon states in the face of the North Korean threat.

For these reasons, the United States sees itself as having a central role in underpinning the strategic stability of Asia for the future as well.  Importantly, the five measures I refer to above have been welcomed in practically all of the capitals of Asia.

The rise of China as seen from the rest of Asia

Asia’s economic and strategic future does not depend on China and the United States alone.  There are 18 member states of the East Asia Summit.  In South East Asia, China’s rise is seen as both an economic opportunity and a foreign policy challenge. 

The economic opportunities speak for themselves.  The Chinese economy is now deeply integrated into most of the economies of East Asia.  If the Chinese economy was to stop tomorrow, economic growth across Asia would collapse the day after.  This is a simple statistical reality.

But on the foreign policy front, questions are asked in many Asian capitals about the foreign policy implications of the 18th Party Congress Work Report.  For example, will China seek to consolidate its broader influence in Asia? Also, does the protection of China’s interests in the maritime domain represent a new element in China’s foreign policy formulations?  Furthermore, does China intend to use its international influence to reform the current international order and if so in what direction? These are the questions asked in many Asian capitals today.

China’s foreign policy engagement across South East Asia had proceeded smoothly until about 2010.  From that time on, a number of South East Asian states have expressed concerns about China’s assertion of its territorial claims in the South China Seas.  For the record, Australia has always remained neutral on these questions.

North East Asia boundary questions have also emerged with both Korea and Japan.  This has also resulted in an increase in foreign policy tensions in the region.  Some have argued that the election of President Park and Prime Minister Abe provides a fresh opportunity for a fresh start.  Based on my understanding of Japanese domestic politics, the internal politics of the LDP and the stated positions of Shinzo Abe, I do not agree. 

In fact, I am deeply concerned about a generational change in Japanese attitudes towards China and what that means for the future.  I’m also concerned about the possibility of Japan installing meteorological devices on the disputed islands.  I’m also concerned about the likely Chinese reaction to such a step.  Just as I am concerned about the temperature of public opinion in both countries.  I have studied the relationship between these countries for all of my professional life.  But I have never seen it as bad as this.

There is of course one major strategic bright spot in wider East Asia.  And that is the issue of Taiwan.  Decisions taken in both Beijing and Taipei over the last four years have contributed significantly to the stabilization of cross-strait relations.  In fact, cross-strait relations are in better shape now than at any time since 1949.  And this is excellent news for regional stability.

But despite the good news on Taiwan, what we tend to see as the general trend across Asia is two competing forces at work.  One is the force of globalisation.  The second is the force of nationalism.  The force of globalisation brings economies, peoples and countries closer together.  The forces of nationalism tend to tear economies, peoples and countries apart.  Globalisation is the force of the 21st century.  Nationalism is the leftover force of the 19th and 20th centuries.  Globalisation has become a positive force.   Nationalism has increasingly become a negative force.  And nationalism is spreading across Asia.

But if we in Asia want to have a different future to the European experience of the 19th and 20th centuries, then we will need to do things differently.                            

Future directions for the Asian hemisphere

So what then is to be done?

What I have attempted to do in this address so far is to describe different perspectives on strategic reality from Beijing, Washington and the rest of Asia.  I have not tried to define who is right and who is wrong.  That does not help anybody.  Nor does it help solve common challenges. 

So how could we craft a common future together as opposed to a future based on conflict?

The end of 2012 has seen three very different electoral processes take place for the world's three largest economies.  President Obama was re-elected in the United States and will hold office until early 2017.  Xi Jinping was appointed General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission where he will remain until at least 2017.  He is also likely to retain those positions, as well as the Presidency of China, until 2023.  And then on 16 December in Japan, nationalist LDP leader Shinzo Abe was elected in a landslide as Prime Minister.  This will Japan’s eight Prime Minister since 2001.  But given the size of his super majority in the Japanese lower house, he now has a reasonable prospect of serving a full four-year term.

I argue that much of the future of East Asia will be determined by the decisions taken in Beijing, Tokyo and Washington over the next four years.  There are two broad strategic approaches available.

The first is what I call “strategic drift”.  Under the “strategic drift” scenario, Beijing, Washington and Tokyo will simply seek to “manage” each issue as it arises.  This is both a passive strategy and a reactive strategy.  Also, because the issues in these relationships are increasingly difficult, issue management will become increasingly difficult.  Issue management is also likely to increasingly overwhelm the strategic fundamentals of China-US relations in particular.

The alternative is an active strategy of strategic cooperation.  Some argue that the core problem in China-US relations is an absence of trust and that trust must be re-established before cooperation can occur.  I believe in the reverse logic.  The only way to build trust is by undertaking active projects of cooperation and concluding them successfully.  That way, trust is built on cooperation and success.

I believe there is some interest in Washington in using these next four years to develop a new strategic framework for the China-US relationship.  I have also noted very carefully what General Secretary Xi Jinping has said about the need for a “new type of great-power relationship”.  In particular with the United States.

This was emphasised by Xi Jinping during his visit to the United States in February this year.  Specifically, China has emphasised that this “new type of great-power relationship” should not be based on the old types of great-power relationships that we have seen in Europe in the past.  These old style great-power relationships were based on hegemonic relations which often ended in conflict and war.

Instead, Xi Jinping argued in the United States that a new relationship with the United States should include increased strategic trust, deepened mutually beneficial cooperation, and enhanced cooperation and coordination on global issues – as well as respecting one another’s core interests.  Furthermore, at a Tsinghua University forum in July this year, Xi Jinping noted that “a country must let others develop as it seeks its own development; must let others feel secure as it seeks its own security; must let others live better when it wants to live better itself”.

I would argue that these also represent useful concepts for the further development of China-US relations.  I therefore believe there is an opportunity to try and bring US and Chinese strategic thinking together on this subject.

I argue that President Obama and President Xi need to outline a five year US-China strategic roadmap.  In the absence of such a strategic roadmap, there is a real danger of strategic drift.  Such a strategic roadmap could provide both central organising principles as well as a practical work program within both administrations.

The Chinese often complain about United States’ policy being inconsistent both within and between administrations.  The United States often complains that the Chinese government does not always speak or act with the full engagement or compliance of the Chinese military.  A US-China Strategic Roadmap would assist in removing some of these uncertainties and ambiguities.

Further, I would recommend seven elements to such a roadmap for the future.  These are virtually the same as those I argued in Washington last week when I addressed the Brookings Institution.

First, President Xi and President Obama need to meet regularly with all the key members of their respective staff.  These individuals need to become highly familiar with each other. At present they are not. This should involve three to four sets of substantial engagements scheduled regularly throughout each calendar year. 

Fortunately the G20, APEC, the UN General Assembly (and possibly the East Asia Summit) provide opportunities for regular engagement.  But these need to be substantive half or full day engagements around a long term structured agenda – that is a strategic roadmap – not just the protocol requirements of the day or, for that matter, the issue management of the day.  As these regular summits tend to occur in the second half of the year – there should also be agreement for a regular bilateral summit in one another’s capitals in the first half of the year.
Second, both President Xi and President Obama need to have an undisputed “point person” to be the ultimate “go to” person on the relationship.  At the United States end, this should mean the National Security Advisor or a senior official within the National Security Council (NSC) who can speak comfortably across the Administration, and with authority. At this critical juncture of US-China relations, America needs the next Henry Kissinger for all the back-channelling that is necessary, both behind and between official Presidential meetings.  

Similarly China needs its own Henry Kissinger as well.  The Chinese system does not have a NSC. It needs one.  In the absence of an NSC, it needs a senior official who can speak across the political, security and economic agenda with authority.  Trust between these two individuals on the United States and China sides is critical.

Third, globally, the United States and China should embark on a realistic program to make the current global rules-based order work.  Increasingly it doesn’t. We are all familiar with the impasse over Syria which is not likely to be resolved in the near term.  But in other critical blockages in the UN System (e.g. the Doha Round, climate change and nuclear non-proliferation) both the United States and China have an interest in demonstrating that the rules-based order can work – and can deliver real results.

Furthermore, a new period of Sino-US strategic cooperation will also make the G20 work more effectively given the complex array of global financial and global macroeconomic challenges that lie before us.  As China becomes the world’s largest economy, a properly functioning G20 becomes even more important.  Both China and the United States should identify at least one of these areas of potential global cooperation which together they can drive to a successful global conclusion.  This would also demonstrate to one another and the world that they can in fact make the global rules-based order work.

Fourth, regionally, a new US-China Strategic Roadmap should embrace the principles of how to build a new rules-based security order for East Asia.  I outlined this in an address to the Asia Society in New York earlier this year and again in late September at the Singapore Global Dialogue.  The latter in particular details a range of specific measures of how we can create a new Pax Pacifica which is neither a new Pax Americana by another name, nor a Pax Sinica.  This involves working and agreeing on the strategic and conceptual language of such a regional rules-based order. 

Language is particularly important so that strategic concepts are made comprehensible in both countries and the rest of the region.  For example, western concepts of collective, multilateral security cooperation can be made compatible with Chinese concepts of strategic harmony and balance.  Almost a foreign policy equivalent of the “The Golden Mean” (Zhong Yong). 

Apart from language, however, a Pax Pacifica should also include basic principles of regional security cooperation.  As well as specific confidence and security building measures that help facilitate dispute resolution as well as prevent conflict through miscalculation.  The East Asia Summit and the ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting +8 provides a readily available mechanism for doing this work.

Fifth, bilaterally, the US and Chinese militaries need a much closer working relationship.  At present, there is a formal strategic and security dialogue at Deputy Defence Minister, Deputy Chief of General Staff, Deputy Foreign Minister level.  This should be elevated to ministerial and Chief of General Staff level.  The purpose of this bilateral, security dialogue should be to develop confidence and security-building measures between these two important militaries.  This should focus on service-wide protocols for avoiding and managing incidents at sea and incidents in the air.

Sixth, beyond political and security cooperation, at the economic level a new US-China strategic roadmap should include a trans-Pacific partnership that should seek to include Japan, and in time, China and India.  A genuine free trade area in the Pacific would help harness all the positive forces of economic globalisation that has helped change much of the region for the better so far.

APEC has made extraordinary progress over the last 25 years.  Nonetheless APEC does not include India.  We now need to go to the next stage with regional economic integration.  Here the East Asia Summit may also be useful because it includes India and also has a political, security and economic agenda.  This would also provide a further, proactive positive agenda of work for the US-China relationship to focus on.

Finally, a new US-China strategic roadmap should also be consolidated into a new “Shanghai Communique” between China and the United States. It is now almost a third of a century since the last communique was produced.  This occurred at the very beginning on Deng Xiaoping’s program of reform and opening.  China’s economic and strategic circumstances have changed significantly since then.  The Cold War that underpinned US and Chinese strategic collaboration in the 1970s and 1980s is now over.  Therefore, the time has come to frame a new communique which deals with the new economic and strategic circumstances of the 21st century.


Foreign policy priorities are always a choice between the urgent and the important.  The challenge of China-US relations represents both.

I have recently been reading a book by Christopher Clark entitled The Sleepwalkers – How Europe Went to War in 1914.  It is a cautionary tale of how the Europeans drifted into a conflict that slaughtered millions, brought down empires and destroyed an entire civilisation.  The book chronicles how the leaders of Europe, “who prided themselves on their modernity and rationalism, in fact behaved like sleepwalkers, stumbling through crisis after crisis and finally convincing themselves that war was the only answer”.

I sometimes wonder whether we in Asia have properly reflected on the centuries of large-scale killing that Europe endured.  And on Europe’s conclusion 1945 that enough was enough and that it was time for a new European and global order.  I for one do not believe there is anything determinist about history.

What we now need is unprecedented foreign policy creativity.  The purpose of this foreign policy creativity is to place the China-US relationship in a new strategic framework.  We need to reconceptualise problems we face into opportunities which will benefit us all.  And then develop a concrete program of policy action to give these ideas practical effect.

The reengineering of strategic mindsets is arguably our core challenge.  If we and our friends in America just simply conclude that conflict is somehow inevitable in the long-term, then the prospects are grim indeed.  If, however, we are capable of engineering an alternative mindset which is neither utopian nor delusional, but instead seeks to maximise cooperation and minimise conflict, within the overall principles of an agreed strategic framework, then we are capable of changing the course of history.

Australia is a country whose most important economic partner is China and a country whose oldest continuing ally is the United States.  As former Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Australia, my purpose today is to leave these proposals with you in the hope that the United States, China and Australia, in partnership with the other countries of our wider region, can in fact build a truly Pacific century together. 


  1. Great speech. It would be good if Chinese democracy could be framed as unleashing potential, the same way Deng was able to unleash economic potential to the benefit of all Chinese people. There is too much focus on democracy being either 'American' or 'chaotic' and contrary to China's interests (ie party interests).

  2. "I for one do not believe there is anything determinist about history." Deterministic?

  3. Underpinning is achieved by stretching out the foundation in depth or maybe in width in order that it possibly sits with a much more supporting garden soil stratum or maybe redirects their insert all over a larger region. Utilization of micro loads along with plane grouting are normal approaches in underpinning.

  4. Click here Auther's Homepage for access to get free online minecraft gift card codes for you and open your free minecraft premium account.

  5. This is very much a work in progress whenever I find out about one who is more beautiful than essay writers any of these I will add her and kick out number ten Thanks for sharing the informative post.

  6. All the best blogs that is very useful for keeping me share the ideas
    of the future as well this is really what I was looking for, and I am
    very happy to come here. Thank you very much
    earn to die
    earn to die 2
    earn to die 3
    Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the
    earn to die 4
    courage to go ahead and give youu a shout out from
    earn to die 6
    Austin Texas! Just wanted to tell
    earn to die 5
    you keep up the fantastic work!my weblog
    age of war
    Hi! I’ve been reading your blog for a while now and finally got the
    happy wheels
    strike force heroes

  7. best web page.
    mobdro app free movie streaming app available for iPhone/iPad

  8. We are really grateful for your blog post. You will find a lot of approaches after visiting your post. Great work : contact form | snapchat emoji

  9. Your essay is very good and we also comment great grandchildren.
    Unblocked Games, friv 2 games, abcya

  10. Thanks for sharing your info. I really appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your further write.
    Thanks for sharing !
    five night at freddys 2 | five night at freddys 4 |
    2048 game online| fireboy and watergirl | tanki online 3

  11. I read deeply your article, the points you have mentioned in this article are useful. I am always pleased with what you bring to it very interesting and useful.
    Norton protection

  12. Let’s keep are safe place to play the very best free games for kids! Please click: wingsio | slither io |

  13. Nice and amazing post after reading this I gain much knowledge from thisHungry Shark Evolution online
    keep sharing these types of information


  14. شركة نقل عفش
    اهم شركات مكافحة حشرات بالخبر كذلك معرض اهم شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام والخبر والجبيل والخبر والاحساء والقطيف كذلك شركة رش حشرات بالدمام ومكافحة الحشرات بالخبر
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام

  15. This article gives the light in which we can observe the reality. This is very nice one and gives in depth information. custom essay writing service Thanks for this nice article.

  16. I like your all post. You have done really good work. Thank you for the information you provide, it helped me a lot. I hope to have many more entries or so from you.
    Very interesting blog.

  17. Great post! I am actually getting ready to across this information which I found very interesting to read. 
    coursework Writing Service

  18. Professional writing service provided by experienced and well qualified writers.
    Economics Assignment Help

  19. I was very impressed by this post, this site has always been pleasant news. Thank you very much for such an interesting post. Keep working, great job! In my free time, I like play game: What about you?

  20. Thank you for sharing this informative information with us. Antivirus Support Number

  21. Thank You for sharing such a great information!! Acer Customer Services

  22. nice post I enjoyed it a lot keep sharing like this Epson Tech Support Number

  23. Thanks for this informative post with us. It really helps us a lot.

    AOL Customer Support Number

  24. Nice post. Love it!!So inspiring.
    Keep it up :)
    Mac customer care

  25. Welcome to MS office support service. We provide solution regarding MS office support number. Visit us to know more.

  26. Your blog posts are more interesting and impressive. I think there are many people like and visit it regularly, including me. I actually appreciate your wonderful blog and I will be sure to come back here again to see such great post.Yahoo Support

  27. If you are Yahoo mail user and faces any issues so you can contact with yahoo mail support number. Yahoo Mail Support

  28. It's very informative Blog, it's more helpful to us thanks for sharing keep it up!!! Firefox Tech Support

  29. I like your post its very useful for me and I follow your all post .I am waiting for your next essential article. Chrome Contact Number

  30. We are always here to help you if you are facing some problem regarding iPhone.
    iphone customer support

  31. If you’re one of them who don’t want to get into a bond, then these hooks up apps are undeniably going to think for you. Best Hookup Apps

  32. iWantv! 'ABS-CBN live spilling' appears with only 1 click! – LopezLink. Jan 28, 2010 - iWantv! gives you a chance to get well known shows in video-on-request and live channel groups. The video-on-request choice makes live gushing of iWant television 2.3.2 for Android – Download Dialect. Creator: ABS-CBN. Security level: 100% safe. Estimate: 3.04MB. Downloads: 12,463. Date: 07.29.16. Bundle Name: com.abscbn.iwantv. IWanTV | LoadCentral Philippines Its administrations incorporate Pinoy TV and voice, and portable web alongside the restrictive access to ABS-CBN substance through the IWanTV! application. It was propelled on Pinoy TV
    ABS-CBN Shows, iWanTV, different substance to be accessible to Shrewd. Sep 27, 2016 - To begin with iWant television, PLDT Home and Savvy endorsers can enlist for a record by means of or download the iWant television. iWantv!: Online Free television at your own opportunity | penworks | photoblog Nov 8, 2010 - iWantv is an administration allowed to all SKYBROADBAND and BayanDSL endorsers. Facilitating all the top of the line shows of ABS-CBN, ANC, Studio 23. Get Premium Access on iWantTV with Pinoy TV 50! | Starmometer. Nov 13, 2016 - Missing a scene of your most loved primetime teleserye in light of terrible movement is presently a thing previously. With ABS-CBN's iWanTV, I can.
    Interpret this page. Liza Soberano and Enrique Gil repeat their very much cherished parts as Agnes and Xander as they top bill "Everlastingly and the sky is the limit from there," the main select substance offering on. the most effective method to download recordings from iwantv » YugaTech | Philippines Tech. BayanDSL and Pinoy TV is currently offering live gushing television and video-on-request to all it's DSL endorsers and Sky Broadband clients. Accessible channels incorporate. iWanTV Files – LIONHEARTV. More on the web and cell phone clients keep on watching ABS-CBN programs online by means of the video-on-request and livestreaming administration iWanTV. Pinoy TV

  33. may be useful for all, helpful article once and pardon me permission to share also here :

    Obat eksim
    Obat nyeri sendi tulang
    Obat osteoporosis

  34. I hope it will be helpful for too many people that are searching for this topic.Thanks for sharing. I hope it will be helpful for too many people that are searching for this topic.
    Escort in Chanakyapuri

  35. شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل افضل شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل شركتنا شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل لنقل العفش تعد أفضل شركات نقل العفش بالجبيل حيث تمتلك شركتنا عدد كبير جدا من السيارات الديانات و الحاويات و غيرها لنقل الاثاث و المكاتب و غيرها من الأغراض المختلفة بأرخص الأسعار مع افضل شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل لان  شركة نقل اثاث بالقطيف
    شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل
    شركة نقل عفش واثاث بالجبيل تقدم أفضل خدمة نقل اثاث من خلال فريق عمل مدرب وفنيين متخصصين في فك وتركيب الاثاث ويوجد لدي شركة نقل عفش بالجبيل العديد من الفروع كما توفر العمالة المدربة على نقل جميع قطع الاثاث من كنب وسجاد وغرف نوم حيث أن الشركة تستخدم الأوناش حتى يتم النقل من الأدوار العالية إلى شركة نقل عفش بالقطيف
    شركة نقل عفش بالخبر

  36. يعتبر أكبر ما يشغل العميل بعد شراء العفش أو الأثاث هي عملية نقل هذا العفش من مكان البيع إلى المنزل، وفي هذا الوقت يحتاج العميل الىشركة من شركات نقل الأثاث بالخبر و بالدمام لتوفر عليه عناء التفكير في هذا الأمر وفى نفس الوقت تقوم بنقل العفش باحترافية ومهنية بحيث يصل العفش أو الأثاث الى المنزل بنفس حالة الشراء دون حدوث كسر أو خدش شركة نقل عفش بالدمام
    شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
    شركة نقل عفش بالدمام هي أفضل شركات نقل عفش في الدمام تقدم لك نقل عفش بواسطة عمالة مميزة حيث توفر لكم ارخص اسعار نقل اثاث بالدمام ارخص شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام
    شركة نقل اثاث بالجبيل

  37. شركة الوطنية ارخص شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام بفضل القدرة والامكانية التى تمتلكها شركتنا فى طرح الاسعار التى تتوائم مع كل متطلبات حياة عملائنا الاعزاء وجمهورنا الكبير ان شركتنا شركة الوطنية تدرس كافة الاسعار وتكاليف العمليات اللازمة لاجراء مكافحة وابادة النمل الابيض او حشرة الارضة شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالخبر
    شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالقطيف
    بأفضل شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام والخبر . كما ان البعض الاخر يلجأ الى استخدام المبيدات المتداوله في الاسواق و المراكز و يستعين بها للقضاء على الحشرات و لكن يمكن ان يحدث شيئان الاول هو سوء استخدام المبيدات بشكل خاطئ قد يؤدي الى اضرار اكثر مما تسببها الحشرات فقد تؤذي المبيدات بعض الناس بامرا صدريه و ذلك لوجود بعض المركبات الضاره بالمبيدات كما انه يوجد في تلك المبيدات بعض المركبات المحظور استخدامها لذلك فهي غير مصرح بها شركة مكافحة البق بالقطيف
    شركة مكافحة البق بالدمام
    دائما ما نسعي في شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالقطيف الى ارضاء جميع عملاءنا عن كافة خدماتنا المقدمة لهم من افضل شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالقطيف والخبر  لكي نكون في صدارة ومقدمة افضل شركة مكافحة حشرات بالقطيف تقدم خدمات ابادة فورية لكافة الحشرات المنزلية سواء الزاحفة او الطائرة علي حد سواء وذلك باعتمادنا علي استخدام افضل انواع المبيدات المستوردة شركة مكافحة الفئران بالخبر

  38. هتم شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالدمام باعمال المكافحة للصراصير بالدمام فالصراصير من اكثر انواع الحشرات التى تسبب الضيق والالم وتسبب الشعور بالاشمئزاز والقرف فى المكان فاذا كنت تعانى من وجود الصراصير وتعانى من وجودها وانتشارها فى اى مكان فى منزلك وبالاخص فى المطابخ والصراصير الصغيره المتواجدة فى المكان شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالدمام
    شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالخبر
    ن افضل شركة مكافحة حشرات بالقطيف والتي تقضي تماما علي اية حشرات منزلية. فنحن في شركة مكافحة حشرات  نعمل وفق عدة محاور وهي: فنيين رش مبيدات حشرية مدربين وذوي خبرة كبيرة افضل المبيدات الحشرية ( برائحة – بدون رائحة – حقن جيل نقطي ) ضمان ساري طول مدة الاتفاق وفوري نحن في شركة الوطنية  نهتم لحصول العميل علي ضمان حسب رغبته فهو مقسم الي ضمان ( 3 شهور – 6 شهور – سنوي بعقد محدد بزيارات ) شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالقطيف
    شركة مكافحة النمل الابيض بالدمام
    تعتمد طرق التنظيف لدينا فى افضل شركة تنظيف شقق بالدمام والخبر علي استخدام أحدث التقنيات  متمثلة في استخدام ماكينات تنظيف الارضيات وكذلك احدث معدات تنظيف واجهات المنازل القديم منها والجديد و شركة تنظيف شقق ومكاتب ومدارس ومساجد وفلل بالدمام والخبر والجبيل والقطيف وماكينات جلي وتلميع حديثة بالاضافة الى مهارة وخبرة كبيرة لموظفي الشركة في تنظيف المنازل او البيوت شركة مكافحة الحشرات بالجبيل

  39. لاننا نسعى دائما فى شركة نظافة بالدمام الى توفير خدماتنا لكل عملائنا مهم تغير مكان اقامتهم قمنا بفتح لنا فروع فى اكتر من مكان لتلبية رغبات عملائنا ومنها الدمام والخبر والجبيل والقطيف  والذين بفضل الله حزنا على ثقتهم الغالية ولايلجأون فى حالة احتياجهم لاحد شركات النظافة بالدمام  الا واتصلوا بنا فى شركة نظافة بالدمام وذلك بفضل الله اولا ثم بفضل  العمل المخلص مننا والدائم ولاننا نقدم دائما عروض لجميع عملاءنا حينما يتصلون بنا فى شركة نظافة بالدمام والخبر والجبيل شركة تنظيف منازل بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف شقق بالدمام
    ونقدم دائما الخدمة بأسلوب راقي اما خارجيا نقوم بأعمال تنظيف المسابح وتنقيه المياه بداخلها ونقوم أيضا بتنظيف الخزانات بما يضمن لك الراحة وعدم التفكير فى الاستعانه بشركات النظافة بالخبر والدمام الا بعد وقت طويل وعلي اعلي مستوي ونقوم بتنظيف الحدائق وتقليم الأشجار ونقوم بحمله تنظيف شامله للبيت بكل ما يحويه فنحن شركة تنظيف منازل محترفة في نظافة المنازل و نظافة الشقق و الشركات والمطاعم والمدارس بشكل دوري و لدينا عقود عمل مع جميع عملائنا لتوفير النظافة الكاملة وتنظيف الأثاث بالبخار على مدار العام فنحن نقدم لعملائنا شركة تنظيف منازل بالخبر
    شركة تنظيف منازل بالقطيف

  40. شركة تنظيف بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف بالخبر لتقديم المستوي الراقي جدا فاننا نقوم بخدمات التنظيف الداخلي والخارجي باي منزل فداخليا نهتم بتنظيف الأبواب بكل ما يتعلق بها من أتربه وملوثات واتساخات ونزيل كل هذا علي الفور  ونقوم أيضا بأعمال تنظيف الشبابيك وما يتعلق بها من أتربه ونقوم أيضا بأعمال تنظيف شامله للأرضيات والسيراميك والرخام والبلاط ونقدم دائما الخدمة بأسلوب راقي اما خارجيا نقوم بأعمال تنظيف المسابح وتنقيه المياه بداخلها ونقوم أيضا بتنظيف الخزانات بما يضمن لك الراحة وعدم التفكير فى الاستعانه بشركات النظافة بالخبر والدمام شركة تنظيف بالخبر
    شركة تنظيف بالجبيل
    شركة الوطنية شركة تنظيف منازل بالدمام  توفر عليكى الوقت والمجهود حيث تقوم شركة تنظيف منازل بالدمام ولاخبر والقطيف بتقديم الخدمه بجوده ودقه عاليه تعيد منزلك الى جماله مهما كان حجمه أو شكله . الشركة تقدم العديد والعديد من خدمات التنظيف للاماكن السكانيه ويشمل تنظيف البيوت – تنظيف الشقق – تنظيف الفلل وذلك لأن اعمال التشطيبات تترك الكثير من الرواسب وبقايا الدهانات وهو ما يصعب علي العملاء القيام باعمال تنظيف المنازل لديهم والتي تحتاج الى طلب شركة الوطنية  احد افضل شركة تنظيف المنازل بالدمام والخبر للتخلص من كل هذة الاشياء واعادة المنزل كالجديد تمام شركة تنظيف بالقطيف

  41. شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام تعتبر شركة مؤسسة أنوار طيبة  افضل شركة غسيل كنب بالدمام او شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام والقطيف والاحساء والجبيل حيث يقوم فريق المؤسسة  بعد اتصالكم بتنظيف الكنب بالدمام مباشره يقوم فريق العمل بمعاينه الكنب المراد غسيل كلنا نعرف جيدا ان هناك مشكله بسبب كثرة الاستخدام للكنب او البطرمه
    تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالجبيل  نجد هي افضل شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالدمام و بالخبر تستخدم افضل معدات تنظيف مكيفات اسبليت و شباك مع عمالة مدربة وذات خبرة كبيرة جدا في كافة عمليات التنظيف ونحن نقدم خدمات التنظيف بالمنزل وبدون مغادرة المكان حيث نعيدة كالجديد تماما ً حيث ان تنظيف المكيف يوفر الكثير من الطاقة المنفقة علي مكيف  .
    شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالقطيف
    شركة تنظيف مكيفات بالخبر شركة تنظيف وصيانة مكيفات بالدمام عزيزي العميل تستطيع الاعتماد علينا في شركة تركيب مكيفات بالدمام للحصول على خدمة غسيل المكيفات بالدمام وصيانة التكييف

  42. شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالخبر افضل شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام والخبر هي شركة مجالاتها كثيرة فى النظافة ومكافحة الحشرات تعمل بجميع مدن المنطقه الشرقية لذلك تستطيع ان تسمينا وتطلق علينا شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالمنطقه الشرقية فنحن بحكم عملنا فى مجال النظافة منذ أعوام
    شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالدمام
    شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالقطيف عتبر شركة مؤسسة أنوار طيبة  افضل شركة غسيل كنب بالدمام او شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام والقطيف والاحساء والجبيل حيث يقوم فريق المؤسسة  بعد اتصالكم بتنظيف الكنب بالدمام مباشره يقوم فريق العمل بمعاينه الكنب المراد غسيل كلنا نعرف جيدا ان هناك مشكله بسبب كثرة الاستخدام للكنب او البطرمه فى الدمام او فى المنازل السعوديه
    شركة كشف تسربات المياه بالجبيل

  43. شركة تنظيف كنب بالدمام
    شركة غسيل كنب بالدمام ؤسسه انوار طيبه تعتبر أفضل شركة تنظيف فلل وشقق بالدمام والأحساء: هو التعاون مع الشركات المتخصصه فى تنضيف الشقق وطبعاً بنقدر نعتمد على الشركات المتخصصه فى تنضيف الشقق بالكامل وده لان الشركات المتخصصه فى تنضيف الشقق عندها عمال بيقومو بتنضيف الشقق وطبعاً بكل محتوياتها
    شركة تنظيف كنب بالقطيف
    شركة تنظيف السجاد بالدمام شركة غسيل كنب بالقطيف والخبر  شركة لغسيل فرش الكنب و الانتريهات بالقطيف. لو انتى عندك مشكلة مع تنظيف الكنب والسجاد او الموكيت وغيرها من المفروشات. لو عندك حفلة فى بيتك وعاوزة تنظفى كل الكنب و الفرش قبل الحفلة وبعدها انت مع شركة غسيل كنب بالقطيف والخبر
    شركة تنظيف السجاد بالقطيف

  44. شركة تنظيف خزانات بالقطيف يقوم العمال لدي شركتنا شركة غسيل مكيفات بالدمام وشركة تنظيف خزانات بالمدينة المنورة بالتصوير للمكيف من الداخل حتي يتم التعيين و التحديد له من الداخل و معرفة ما يوجد به من الداخل من اوساخ او من اتربة او اي شيئ يمكن ان يكون غير نظيف و يقوموا ايضا بالتحديد اذا تواجد به ميكروبات او جراثيم من الداخل حيث ان هذه الميكروبات و الجراثيم من الممكن ان تتسبب للانسانبامراض التنفس
    شركة تنظيف خزانات بالدمام
    شركة تنظيف خزانات بالخبر شركة تنظيف خزانات بالدمام اهلا وسهلا بك عزيزى القارئ هل لديك خزانات مياه ؟ ترد تنظيفة وتعقيمة من الجراثيم والميكروبات ؟ هل ترد الحصول على شركة موثوقة فى اعمال تنظيف وتعقيم خزانات المياه نعم عزيزى القارئ انتا الان فى المكات الصحيح تعتبر شركة أنوار طيبة للخدمات المنزلية من افضل شركات تنظيف وغسيل الخزانات فى الدمام 
    شركة تنظيف كنب بالخبر

  45. تنظيف منازل بالدمام شركة انوار طيبة  افضل شركة تنظيف منازل بالدمام نسعي جاهدين بفضل المولى تقديم  افضل خدمات التنظيف والتعقيم لكافة المنازل باختلاف انواعها داخلياً وخارجياً ونسعى دائما ان نكون فى قمة صدارة  افضل شركات التنظيف بالدمام حيث نقدم خدمات الجلي والتلميع والتعقيم بافضل ماكينات التنظيف الحديثة بالاضافة الى افضل مواد التنظيف الحديثة والمستوردة خصيصا لدينا في شركة تنظيف منازل بالدمام بالاضافة الى خدمات  شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام
    شركه تنظيف منازل بالدمام مؤسسه انوار طيبه تعتبر أفضل شركة تنظيف فلل وشقق بالدمام والأحساء: هو التعاون مع الشركات المتخصصه فى تنضيف الشقق وطبعاً بنقدر نعتمد على الشركات المتخصصه فى تنضيف الشقق بالكامل وده لان الشركات المتخصصه فى تنضيف الشقق عندها عمال بيقومو بتنضيف الشقق وطبعاً بكل محتوياتها يعنى كل حاجه موجوده فى الشقه يعنى المفروشات والعفش والنجف والزجاج وكمان الحوائط والعمال عندهم القدرة على تنضيف الحوائط والجدران مهما كانت متسخه وخصوصاً لو الشقه دى فيها اطفال لانه زى ما احنا عارفين ان الاطفال عندهم هواية شركات تنظيف شقق بالدمام
    شركه تنظيف شقق بالقطيف
    شركه تنظيف شقق بالدمام شركة تنظيف منازل بالدمام تعتبر أعمال تنظيف المنازل من أبرز الأعمال التى تحتاج الى الشركات المتخصصة التى لها باع طويل فى القيام بأعمال التنظيف المميزة بأفضل الأسعار وأفضل العاملين المميزين اللذين لديهم الخبرات الواسعه فى القيام بأعمال تنظيف المنازل ؛لذلك فقط من الأن أنت تتعامل مع أفضل شركة سعودية

  46. شركه مكافحة حشرات بالقطيف شركات مكافحة الحشرات بالدمام  الاخرى بنفس المنطقه  فقد حققنا نجاحات كبيرة فى مجال مكافحة الحشرات واثبتنا اننا الافضل على مدار الخمس سنوات الاخيرة وهذه مده قصيرة جدا تستطيع اى شركة مكاحة حشرات ان تحققها الا اذا كانت مخلصه فى عملها وعلى قدر على من الشفافيه مع جميع عملائها وتستخدم افضل أنواع المبيدات للتخلص من جميع انواع الحشرات
    مكافحة الحشرات بالقطيف
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر شركة مكافحة حشرات بالخبر من الشركات التي تعمل في مجال مكافحه الحشرات كثيرة ومتعددة بشكل كبير جدا و سوف تجد العديد من الإعلانات دائما عن شركات تعمل في مجال مكافحةالحشرات و أباده الحشرات و سوف اشعر بالحيرة دائما عندما تحتاج إلى شركه مناسبة تستطيع من خلالها القيام بالتخلص من الحشرات الموجودة داخل المنزل
    شركة مكافحة حشرات بالدمام

  47. Thanks for the information you have provided, It is very helpful. Please improve again.
    Escorts Service in Gurgaon

  48. On the off chance that you don't have investment funds and can't different wellsprings of subsidizing to deal with your month to month costs and installments, dealing with your costs for even one month without work can decimate your own accounts. You could fall back on critical home loan installments, prompting abandonment and causing your FICO assessment to plunge further. personal payday loans chicago

  49. Call Girls In Gurgaon,Most of the individuals in Escorts Service In Gurgaon, Hotel Service work and spend more time 24Hrs Female Services. gurgaon Escort

  50. Young College Dwarka Call Girls: The famous primitive category of our girls popular among all ages of Men. They are the dedicated young escort who loves to explore new person at peak heights. dwarka escort

  51. Thank you for sharing the post! Nice to know this news.
    baby names

  52. It's very informative Blog, it's more helpful to us thanks for sharing keep it up!!! Here is my site
    Escorts in Delhi
    Delhi Escort

  53. Ireland face New Zealand for the first time in almost two years on November 17th at the Aviva Stadium. Ireland vs All blacks live

  54. Royalty Limousine is providing very reliable and effective airport services for san Diego. we provide many services related to transportation for example airport shuttle, airport transportation, SUV car service etc Our drivers are available on time for services . We will give you a good memorable ride and offer the best price of our Royalty limousine service in San Diego. You will be extremely impressed with the responsiveness of the royalty limo team.
    San Diego Transportation